Background: We systematically reviewed the literature to determine the influence of sex hormones on facial emotion processing FEP in healthy women at different phases of life. Results: Despite the limited number of studies in some categories and the existence of inconsistencies in the results of interest, the findings of the review suggest that FEP may be enhanced during the follicular phase. Studies with women taking oral contraceptives showed reduced recognition accuracy and decreased responsiveness of different brain structures during FEP tasks. Studies with pregnant women and women in the postpartum showed that hormonal changes are associated with alterations in FEP and in brain functioning that could indicate the existence of a hypervigilant state in new and future mothers. Exogenous administration of testosterone enhanced the recognition of threatening facial expressions and the activation of brain structures involved in the processing of emotional stimuli. Conclusions: We conclude that sex hormones affect FEP in women, which may have an impact in adaptive processes of the species and in the onset of mood symptoms associated with the premenstrual syndrome.
Sex differences in perception of invisible facial expressions
Female copulatory vocalizations - Wikipedia
Previous research indicates that women are better at recognizing facial expressions than men. In the current study, we examined whether this female advantage in the processing of facial expressions also occurs at the unconscious level. In two studies, participants performed a simple detection task and a 4-AFC task while faces were rendered invisible by continuous flash suppression. When faces with full intensity expressions were suppressed, there was no significant sex difference in the time of breakup of suppression Study 1. However, when suppressed faces depicted low intensity expressions, suppression broke up earlier in men than women, indicating that men may be more sensitive to facial features related to mild facial expressions Study 2. The current findings suggest that the female advantage in processing of facial expressions is absent in unconscious processing of emotional information. The female advantage in facial expression processing may require conscious perception of faces.
Sex Hormones and Processing of Facial Expressions of Emotion: A Systematic Literature Review
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Female copulatory vocalizations , also called female copulation calls or coital vocalizations , are produced by female primates , including human females , and female non-primates. Copulatory vocalizations usually occur during copulation and are hence related to sexual activity. In primates , copulation calling is typically observed at the end of mating  and there are vast variations between species regarding its occurrence, frequency and form. It is agreed that coital vocalizations fulfill an evolutionary purpose  and that they serve as adaptive solutions to problems that the females face, such as infanticide , as well as obtaining high quality sperm. In non-primates, copulatory calling predominantly occurs before copulation in order to attract mates mating call.